Elmore to Central Parkway Connector

If you missed the June and July CTM meetings, you may not be aware of CTM taking a position on some of the details of the proposed connector bridge/road from Elmore St. in South Cumminsville to Central Parkway in Clifton. This news post details recent correspondence between CTM and Ohio DOT on the project. It also contains a link to recent project drawings/plans:

After a detailed report by the Transportation Commmittee and subsequent discussion, CTM Trustees agreed to send a email regarding the connector as follows:

——– Beginning of email —–
August 11, 2015

Lee Matthes, P.E.
Project Manager
District 8, ODOT
Phone: 513-933-6612

Dear Mr Matthes,

Thank you for the opportunity to provide public comment on the Elmore to Central Parkway Connector (PID 98109) on July 21, 2015. The public information session was attended by a Clifton Town Meeting (CTM) Trustee (Mike Schur) and several Clifton residents. The public information session designs, along with subsequently provided certified traffic report, were presented and discussed at the August 3, 2015 CTM meeting. The Trustees voted unanimously to submit the follow comments.

Although we appreciate the completion of a certified traffic study, we feel the traffic impact of the connector to Clifton is indeterminate at this time. CTM still has concerns regarding the effect of the connector to Clifton residents and businesses. Please continue to update CTM and include in any future planning and public input.

CTM welcomes the planned shared use bicycle-pedestrian path on the new roadway. However, we note the absence of separated bike lanes on Central Parkway in the current plans. In June of 2014, CTM passed a resolution of support for the Central Parkway Separated Bike Lanes and their extension to Ludlow Avenue. We request that the connector plans include separate bike lanes on Central Parkway consistent with the City of Cincinnati Bicycle Transportation plans and recommendations.

Thank you again for the opportunity to provide comments.

Anthony Sizemore
President, Clifton Town Meeting
cc: City Councilmembers, Mayor of Cincinnati, City Manager
——–End of email————-

On August 19, Mr. Matthes replied by email as follows:
Mr. Sizemore,
Thank you for your comments regarding the Elmore/Central Parkway Connector project.

Per discussions with the City of Cincinnati DOTE (Department of Transportation and Engineering), the cycle track that has been installed south of Marshall Avenue was planned to extend north to Ludlow Avenue. This extension will be a separate project, locally sponsored by the City. The proposed Elmore to Central Parkway Connector project will not preclude that work.

FYI – See below link to access all the exhibits that were displayed at the Public Involvement meeting. Exhibit #1 shows the proposed Connector Road (connecting Elmore Street to Central Parkway; large bridge that spans over I-75, Mill Creek and Dirr Street). Exhibit #2 is zoomed out – showing more of the surrounding area. Exhibit #3 states the Purpose of the project and shows the current schedule. ODOT will continue to update CTM regarding project status and schedule.

Link: Click here.

Lee Matthes, P.E.
—– End of reply —–

CTM’s Transportation Committee will continue to follow this topic and provide updates at monthly meetings when new information is available.

BIG Weekend Clifton – July 24-26

The posters above & below tell it all (click on them to make them larger & easier to read). All sorts of exciting things happening. It starts Friday evening, July 24, at 5pm and runs through the weekend. Special performances, dinners, and first ever “Around the World Cocktail Hours.” Spend some time in your business district this weekend.

Big Weekend Clifton program poster-1

cocktail flyer

Clifton Deer Project

By Beth Whelan, for the Clifton Deer Project

Here’s an exciting update about the collaboration between Clifton, the Cincinnati Parks and the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) to address our overabundance of white-tailed deer. We love our deer in Clifton and don’t want to harm them . . . we just wish there weren’t so many!

Too many deer devastates the eco-system and endangers drivers on our roads. For a healthy eco-system, experts say there should be 15-20 deer per square mile. Clifton is up to 50 per square mile in 2015. That’s a 30% increase over last year!

As Ben Pantoja reported in the Spring edition of the Chronicle, Cincinnati’s award-winning Parks, the ODNR and Clifton, are testing an innovative and lasting approach to overabundant deer: Cincinnati’s first non-lethal deer sterilization Pilot Program. On May 11, 2015, the ODNR issued a permit authorizing Dr. Anthony J. DeNicola, Ph.D., President of White Buffalo, Inc., to proceed with a 3-5 year pilot research program. White Buffalo is a non-profit research organization that conserves ecosystems through wildlife population control with an emphasis on wildlife management alternatives in non-traditional settings (http://www.whitebuffaloinc.org/). Over the past 22 years Dr. DeNicola has conducted contraceptive and sterilization projects, as well as sharpshooting programs throughout the United States.

How will the Sterilization Pilot Program work?
Easy – ovariectomies! Confused? An ovariectomy is the removal of a female deer’s ovaries. It’s similar to, but less invasive than, spay surgeries to sterilize dogs and cats. The “rapid ovariectomy” technique developed by the White Buffalo team takes place in the field and typically takes 20 minutes or less.

Surgical sterilization is routinely used to control population growth of domestic animals (i.e., dogs and cats) and at least 14 other species. It is recognized as safe and humane for use in deer by The Humane Society of the United States. Both The Humane Society and White Buffalo reports that the mortality rate is less than 1%. Plus, sterilized deer tend to be healthier and calmer than fertile deer — and they don’t attract bucks thereby reducing the chasing behavior that can result in dangerous deer-vehicle collisions.

Capture and sterilization happens at night when deer are most active and few people are in the parks. Female deer are lured to bait stations and darted with a tranquilizer. The team tracks the deer until they are unconscious then transports them to a temporary sterilization site where a licensed veterinarian performs the ovariectomy and injects long-acting antibiotics and pain medication. The lead veterinarian for the Program is Dr. Randy Junge, DVM, DACZM, who has 25 years of experience in zoo medicine and has performed approximately 60 deer sterilizations. Dr. Junge, who is currently VP of Animal Health at the Columbus Zoo, will perform the ovariectomies and train and supervise local veterinarians to also perform the procedure.

All sterilized deer are tagged. Plus, one mature doe in each matrilineal group will be radio-collared to make future capture easier, track migration rates and patterns and assess survival rates. Treated deer are returned to the area where they were captured (in locations with the lowest likelihood of human disturbance during recovery), administered a reversal agent and monitored for recovery complications. The entire process, from darting to release, takes approximately one hour per deer.

As a result of sterilization, the herd size is at first stabilized and then shrinks through attrition. Most communities experience a 10-20% annual reduction in the number of deer.

We need YOU to help make this Program a success in our community!

To be blunt, we need your BUCKS — not deer, we have plenty of those – but your pledges and cash donations. This Pilot Program will begin in the fall of 2015 so the time is now to make this program a success. There are many volunteer opportunities, including fundraising, neighborhood canvassing and field station volunteers. To learn more, to follow our progress, and to make a pledge/donation, please visit our website at www.cliftondeer.org or go directly to www.cliftondeer.org/donations/.

We and the deer THANK YOU!

All-Star Clifton Neighborhood Events

Vintage All Star Baseball Game

Sat, Jul 11, 2:00 PM at University of Cincinnati. Watch an all star game played by 1860’s rules! Join us on Corey St entrance. Feel free to wear your vintage uniform. No entry fee. This event is part of the All Star Clifton Neighborhood series of events.

Wiffle Ball Home Run Derby

Sun, Jul 12, 2:00 PM in Burnet Woods. Take the cement slide down to Lower Trailside. Test your skills. See how far you can send a wiffle ball flying! Divisions for adults and kids. Prizes for the best distance. Brought to you by All Star Clifton and Cincinnati Neighborhood Games.

Clifton All Star Neighborhood Celebration

Tue, Jul 14, 5:00 PM. Catch the baseball game with your friends on the Clifton Plaza on Ludlow Avenue. Bring a chair or a blanket. The fun starts at 5pm with Jake Speed. We will have photo props with a baseball theme. We will have a raffle with merchant gift certificates. Food trucks, beverages and beer! You do not have to live in Clifton to attend this fun event.


Clifton Street Rehabilitation

The City administration has published the full list of streets to be rehabilitated during the 2015-2016 fiscal year which began on July 1st. Clifton has numerous streets that made the list. Work is expected to start very soon.

Bishop Street – Martin Luther King Jr. Dr to Glenmary Av
Brookline Avenue – Jefferson Avenue to Glenmary Av
Clinton Springs Lane – Vine Street to West Terminus
Cornell Place – Ludlow Av to North Terminus
Crestmont Avenue – East Terminus to Biddle Street
Gano Avenue – Howell Av to Ludlow Av
Glenmary Avenue – Vine St to Clifton Av
Lafayette Avenue – Ludlow Av to McAlpin Av
Rawson Woods Circle – Rawson Woods Ln to Rawson Woods Ln
Rawson Woods Lane – Middleton Av to West Terminus
Senator Place – East Terminus to Clifton Av
Shiloh Street – Telford St to Middleton Av
Wentworth Avenue – Bishop Av to Brookline Av

To see the full City wide program details click here.

Cincy Red Bike in Clifton

Clifton was one of the original Red Bike stations when Cincy Red Bike launched in Cincinnati during September 2014. The Clifton station is located on Howell Avenue next to the Business District Parking lot.

Whether this station is your start or end point, or even just a waypoint on a set of errands you are running, you can connect easily to all points Uptown. There are stations around Uptown also so you can return your bike there, and get a new one when you are ready to travel again. In a short amount of time, you can also cycle from Clifton to a variety of other locations in the urban core: Findlay Market, Washington Park, Northside. Phase II stations are starting to be installed during June 2015 including nearby at Hoffner Park in Northside and Cincinnati State Technical and Community College.

You can find nearby Red Bike stations as well as the status at any station by using the smart phone app for iPhone or Google Play.

Cincy Red Bike has a great website explaining the system & the bikes, and you can sign up for a membership as well.

You can put a Red Bike on the front of a Metro Bus in case you don’t want to ride uphill on your return back to Clifton. The Red Bikes come with integral cable locks, baskets, flashing front/rear lights, and fenders. Bring your own helmet for safety.

CincyRedBike Clifton

House Tour Reveal – Neave-Rawson Farmhouse

Neave-Rawson Farmhouse


By Erin Kilberg & Ali Chidester

This Italianate Victorian style house was once a farmhouse, with more than 50 acres of land. The house was built in 1867 for A. C. Neave, who is listed in the 1878 Cincinnati Directory as a part-owner of Neave, Ward and Co. “Importers and Dealers in Saddlery Hardware and Carriage Trimmings” at 37-39 Main Street downtown. The second known owners were members of the Rawson family. Cincinnati Victorian architect James McLaughlin recorded in his account book in 1898 designing a porch–undoubtedly the current porch–for Edward Rawson. Sisters Marion and Dorothy Rawson then lived in the house for the entirety of their lives. Marion was a graduate of the University of Cincinnati, which she attended to receive an architecture degree; she later pursued a career in archeology and both sisters worked with famous UC archaeologist Carl Blegen. Marion especially, was a pioneering, woman archaeologist who taught in the Classics Department at the University of Cincinnati. Se left the estate to the University in her will when she died in 1980. Jack Brand Development bought the property from the University, and the land was divided. The current owners purchased the house, with .5 acres, in 2012. Though extensive renovations are being done, many of the original elements of this historic home remain intact and are being preserved.

While the house was built in the later 1860s, additions and updates to the interior spanned the next 30 years. The original architect is unknown. The house is set far back from Clifton Avenue and the current owners have removed hedges and greenery that was once there to open up the farmhouse to the street. The house has a cruciform plan. Typical of the Italianate style, the front façade features an outset gable, shallow roofs, bracketed eaves, a bay window, and a bulls-eye window. The Victorian spindle-style porch is a handsome addition to the house dating, as mentioned previously, to the late 1890s. Both the cream yellow and dark green paint are traditional colors for this style home.

The entrance is defined by grand, original double doors that lead into a front vestibule. Once inside, the Victorian, cantilevered stair commands attention with its spindle balusters and octagonal newel post. The newel post is composed of walnut and rosewood. Under the stair is an 1848-49 Cincinnati safe. Left of the entryway is the parlor. It exhibits a variety of different window types including a walk-out window, a bay window, and a smaller, Tudor Revival window. The walk-out window contains a double hung sash that reaches to the floor to allow air flow and passage to the porch. Additional daylight enters the space through the large bay window. The smaller, Tudor revival window with diamond leading is set higher in the wall, which allows for space under it for furniture. The Tudor-style window is not original to the house and probably dates to c. 1910-1920. On axis with the bay window, on the interior wall, is a fireplace and original over mantle mirror. Dating back to the 1870’s or 1880’s, the mirror contains Neo-Grec classical motifs with gilded ornamentation, an elaborate cornice, and a central cartouche. The fireplace is cast iron with a coal burning grate. The shallow firebox and coal grate support the theory that the fireplace was updated in the 1870’s. In the center of the room on the ceiling is an original plaster medallion. The current owners have gilded it. Around the ceiling is a simple cornice; it has a picture rail where art would have been hung.
Adjacent to the parlor is what the current owners are using as a breakfast nook. This space is adjacent to a fully updated kitchen. Originally this space could have served a number of different functions, potentially as a servants’ space or a pantry.

Beyond the kitchen, is a second space with an unclear history. It is now an informal living room. The room has an original chimney with a wooden mantle that has been moved from one of the upstairs bedrooms.
The next space on the tour is a small closet nestled under the stairs that the current owners are updating into a half-bath. Directly across from the stair is the original dining space. Similar to the parlor, the space is ornamented with a fireplace and an original ceiling medallion. The fireplace has also been updated in succession from wood burning to coal burning, and most recently gas, but the original firedogs remain. The tile surround is a variegated, blue Rookwood tile. The ceiling medallion indicates the original location of a chandelier. The medallion depicts corn and fruit, appropriate for a dining room. Mimicking the parlor, there is a double-hung sash walkout window to allow access to the porch. All the doors in the house, including those in the dining room, are original, six-panel Italianate style dating from the 1860s.

The current owners have made substantial additions, including a utility room, a three-car garage, a water closet, and a secondary living space. Though the additions were considerable, the new portions are to the rear of the house and echo the original character of the house. The house has seen many technological advances and has been adapted to accommodate new standards of modern living.

House Tour Reveal – Evening Star

House on Evening Star Lane


This handsome, Mid-Century-Modern house was designed in 1957 by architect Walter F. Sheblessy for himself. Sheblessy developed Evening Star Lane on the gardens of the Samuel Taft estate; his own house was the first to be built. He designed five of the other Modernist houses on the street. Evening Star Lane forms a rare, Modernist enclave within the predominately traditional architectural context of Clifton.

Sheblessy (1910-95, with architecture degrees from UC and MIT) designed the house very specifically to accommodate itself to the topography and views, and to the garden features of the earlier Taft estate. The entrance front of the house to the north is more closed and private, while the garden front to the south is far more open and overlooks the lovely remains of the Taft gardens, with stepped stone terraces, concrete columns from an old Taft pergola, and spectacular views of the Mill Creek Valley. The exterior composition of the house, characteristic of Modernism, is long and low; the public spaces are in the center, while diagonally to the left is an open carport that terminates in a detached, studio-guestroom wing. To the right is the bedroom wing. The exterior composition expresses the multiple levels and functions of the spaces within. The central block, containing the public rooms, has shallow, sloped roofs resting on exposed beams; the carport / studio wing has flat roofs, while the bedroom wing is higher and has shallow, curved roofs, also with exposed beams. The exterior walls have elegant, patterned brick veneers; the brickwork of the house was originally a pinkish-salmon color that the current owners have painted in subtle, monochrome grays.

One moves through the entry foyer into the grand, open-plan, public spaces of the living room, dining room, and kitchen. Floor-to-ceiling windows, with wrap-around, butt-joined corners like those of architect Frank Lloyd Wright, offer spectacular views toward the southern slope of the gardens. The ceilings are high and beamed, with beautiful, exposed wood decking. The public spaces are in the diagonal juncture of the plan, with several angled walls. The living area is focussed around a giant, brick chimney and fireplace. Window-doors in both the living and dining areas open out onto expansive wooden decks, effectively blurring the lines between inside and out. The current owners have done extensive work on both the house and gardens with assistance from architect Fritz Kuhlmann and landscape designer John DeVore. Adjacent to the entry, they removed a small, triangular study and added a skylight which serves both to light the interiors and open them more to the kitchen, which was sympathetically remodeled. The public spaces originally had wood-paneled walls which the owners removed in order to further lighten the interiors.

The right-hand wing is split-level, with the bedrooms up a few steps, while down a few steps is a basement recreation room that the Riches have finished; it opens directly into the gardens. The bedroom wing above, has curving, wood ceilings and exposed, wood laminate beams. The current owners combined two smaller bedrooms to create a master suite with a lovely, remodeled bath. A cantilevered balcony, also recalling Frank Lloyd Wright, juts from the end of the wing. All walls stop short of the curving ceilings to allow continuous views and a sense of Modernist open planning to permeate even the bedrooms.

The current owners have furnished the house with appropriate Modernist furniture and art. The dining furniture is Scandinavian Modern; the living room furniture is in an elegant and understated modern idiom with a small glass and chrome table by Modernist designer Eileen Gray. On walls shared by the living and dining areas are Higgins glass “rondelets” by artist Brenda Tarbell and a modern painting by artist Kay Hurley. In the hallway of the bedroom wing are prints by contemporary artist Shepard Fairey and prints by popular, Mid-Century Cincinnati artist Charlie Harper. The house, with its gardens, furnishings and artworks, creates a beautiful and highly consistent Modernist environment.

House Tour Reveal – Woolper Avenue

House on Woolper
By Laura Kageorge and Jared Powell


This grand, 20th-century English Tudor Revival house sits prominently above the street. Detailed with medieval vernacular elements, the exterior of the lower story is clad in red brick while the upper stories are of medieval heavy timber with off-white infill. The house has two projecting gables; both have centered quatrefoil motifs. The gable to the left contains an oriel window; the entry porch is between the two. Medieval canted chimneys with beautiful brick detailing emerge from the roof.

The exact date of this house is somewhat unclear, but it probably dates between 1898 and 1907. A house existed in this block in 1898, but perhaps not the current house. The property was owned by Samuel M. Richardson, chief financial officer of the Westwood Brick Company, which was owned by James N. Gamble (of Procter and Gamble). In 1907, Cincinnati architect James Gilmore (1875-1962) designed a house for Richardson in this block that cost $7,000, a large sum of money for that date. The current house resembles other documented houses by Gilmore in East Walnut Hills and elsewhere; he seems often to have employed similar compositions with twin gables and de-emphasized centers. Stylistically, the 1907 date seems more likely for the house than the earlier date of 1898. [Information in this paragraph from: notes from the current owners conveyed in the 2015 Clifton House Tour informational emails; and notes from the digital Cincinnati Architecture Database of architectural historian Walter E. Langsam. For additional information on architect James Gilmore, see Langsam’s Biographical Dictionary of Cincinnati Architects (on line; maintained on the website of the Architectural Foundation of Cincinnati)].

Entry to the house brings one through the front porch into a small vestibule that then opens into a grand entry hall. A “U”-shaped oak staircase anchors the entry; it has square columns and spindles that act as a screen. The walls are of plaster, painted gold. To the left of the stairs is a majestic, 19th century grandfather clock with elaborate ornamentation. Opposite the stairs is a quaint alcove with a bench.
Through double pocket doors to the right is a parlor with a collection of neoclassical furnishings. Behind a column screen, an inglenook with small alcoves on either side contains a fireplace with a Georgian style mantelpiece. White Tuscan columns on simple bases support molded soffits in the coffered ceiling above. Two leather-upholstered sofas center the room. These rest upon an oriental rug, one of many throughout the house. On the right stands a Steinway baby grand piano. Leaded, diamond-paned windows bring light into the room from behind. To the left is a prominent, Elizabethan-style desk beneath a window overlooking the back yard. Classical, symmetrical cabinets housing the owner’s collection of Rookwood pottery are located on either side of the entry to the parlor.

In the upstairs hall hangs a large brass chandelier. The newels of the stair railing are ornamented with wooden urns. Early 20th-century, mother of pearl, push button light switches are located in the upper hall as well as an antique speaking tube and blown glass doorknobs.

The master bedroom contains Victorian, Chesterfield style sofas and a late Victorian wardrobe with a cherry finish and beveled glass. Opposite the bed is a built-in window alcove with a bench, to the left of which is a recessed fireplace alcove with a shallow arch and turned wooden corner guards. The second bedroom contains a chair, grand wardrobe, and bed, all in late Victorian, Eastlake style. The chair is upholstered in the original horse-hair and the bed is made of burled walnut.

The third bedroom has been converted into a family room with an elaborate, 20th-century, medieval style brass chandelier and a prominent fireplace. Recessed in a shallow alcove, the fireplace is adorned with wood columns and built-in bookshelves with decorative glass. Studded metal plates protect the floor in front of the hearth. The room also holds some of the owner’s personal collection of John Rettig paintings.
The fourth bedroom is furnished with a Victorian, half tester bed, an Eastlake chair, and a dresser with a mirror supported by two obelisks.

In the hall is a decorative metal light. The bathroom contains a marble tub and shower, black and white mosaic tiles, and a marble sink. The tight, winding back stairs lead from the upstairs hall to the first floor hallway and open into the kitchen and service area. Here is the receiving end of the antique speaking tube as well as an antique telephone. The kitchen ceiling is of painted tin that was added by a previous owner. The kitchen is separated from the dining room by a pantry with a door to keep the kitchen smells and serving staff hidden from the dining room. Along the back is built-in pine shelving with glass-paned doors. Perpendicular to the shelving is a built-in wooden counter with an early copper sink.

The dining room has a deep, beamed ceiling and oak wainscoting. Views to the front yard are seen through the oriel window. Opposite the window is a grand, burled pine firebox surrounded by brick, forming a shallow arch that is ornamented with foliate brackets and Tudor Roses. Built-in shelves have glass doors with a leaded circle pattern. A large, Cincinnati-built, medieval style sideboard with custom brass studded hinges, a beveled mirror, and baluster-supported shelving add a medieval touch to the room. A Jacobean style table and chairs, upholstered in English Arts and Crafts “Strawberry Thief” fabric designed by William Morris add a mix of textiles to the room, which also contains one of the many oriental rugs.

Another Clifton House Tour Reveal

This posting contains a write up and a single photo of another house on the Clifton House Tour. We’re not giving the address away, but you get a lot of interesting reading below.

Read more general info about the tour and buy tickets here.

The first reveal can be found at this article.

By Jin Hyun Lee, Katherine Dunton
This house was built in the late 1960s by SCHOLZ HOMES Incorporated. The architectural style is Midcentury Modern, which is characterized by horizontal compositions, large glass windows, open plans, simplicity, and integration with nature. The original owners were the Encrot family. Steven and Mary Martin are the present owners, having purchased the house in 2003. This house is located on a portion of the old Samuel Taft estate; the area around this house was near the greenhouse and the outdoor gardens, within which the current owners have created a pond. This house, as with others on the street, was designed for expansive views. The exterior of the house has a low profile and symmetrical layout, with a gabled entryway and diagonal wings on each side. The front door is set within two, square, stained glass windows. The house also has a deep roof overhang and exposed beams that run front to back in the central pavilion. The exterior is clad in brick and stone. Scholz Homes was founded in 1946 by Donald J. Scholz of Toledo, Ohio. The company specialized in luxury residential designs and grew to become one of America’s largest home-builders in the 1950s and 1960s. Scholz specialized in luxury residential design because soldiers were returning from WWII and wanted elegant homes. Donald Scholz was influenced by both Mies van der Rohe and Frank Lloyd Wright. This, combined with his appreciation of nature, drove the design of his California-style, contemporary ranch homes. Key features of Scholz homes included strong horizontal lines, vibrant colors for the interiors, spacious open plans, cathedral ceilings, ample windows, rear patios partially covered by overhanging roofs, sleek and modern kitchens, and high-end appliances. This house possesses many of these features including horizontal lines, an open plan, ample windows, and a covered rear patio. A fieldstone entry transitions into hardwood floors throughout the first level, installed by the current owners to replace wall-to-wall shag carpeting. Exposed beams accent the ceilings. In the central portion of the house is a formal living and dining room. The living area is sunken, indicating a change of function within the open plan. Down the hall to the right one observes a bedroom/office space, then the bathroom, which occupies the angle formed by the diagonal wing, creating a unique room shape. A second bedroom is on the right. At the end of the hall is the master bedroom. The current owners combined two bedrooms to create a master suite with a large bathroom and walk-in closet. In the left wing is the kitchen. Walking through the dining room to the kitchen the wood flooring changes direction to echo the diagonals of the floor plan. The current owners completely updated the kitchen, including adding a skylight. Beyond the kitchen is an informal family room and the stairs leading to the basement. The basement was finished by the current owner and functions as a workout space in one area and a more formal office space in the other. The basement office opens into the backyard at ground level. This elegant house features prominently amongst its modernist neighbors on the Lane.